Arduino – Software Foundations

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This page contains explanations of some of the elements of the Arduino hardware and software and the concepts behind them.


  • Sketch: The various components of a sketch and how they work.


  • Digital Pins: How the pins work and what it means for them to be configured as inputs or outputs.
  • Analog Input Pins: Details about the analog-to-digital conversion and other uses of the pins.
  • PWM: How the analogWrite() function simulates an analog output using pulse-width modulation.
  • Memory: The various types of memory available on the Arduino board.

Programming Technique